Category Archives: CroRadio

Bleiburg 1945. u sjecanje – In Memorium

17Source: http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/yugoslav-hist1.htm

Chapter from the book Od Bleiburga do Naših Dana

YALTA AND THE BLEIBURG TRAGEDY

University of San Francisco, California USA
Condensed from the chapter with the same title in:

Od Bleiburga do Naših Dana

Jozo Marovic, Editor

Zagreb: Školska Kniga, 1995

1Presented at the International Symposium for Investigation of the Bleiburg Tragedy Zagreb, Croatia and Bleiburg, Austria
May 17 and 18, 1994

We are approaching the fiftieth anniversary of the Yalta Conference which shaped the post-war world and forever changed the history of Croatia and a dozen other nations. In February of 1995 we will have had a half century to reflect on the tragedy of the so-called “Great Powers” dividing up the world and forcing hundreds of thousands seeking freedom to be returned to their captive nations against their will. And yet, in this half century, what have we really learned and how have we gone about the study of forced repatria-tion?

2The subject of forced repatriation of hundreds of thousands of human beings at the end of the Second World War is so multifaceted that it presents an array of problems for those who would study it. Unlike the study of the Jewish Holocaust, now considered a single interdisciplinary field, post-war repatriation is still seen primarily in the limited context of the nations involved. There is no field of “Repatriation Studies” and each exploration must rely on a single discipline, such as History or Political Science, to explore a single aspect without really considering the whole. While a multi-disciplinary approach is warranted, History can perhaps best focus on cause and effect. Forced repatriation did not “just happen.” While there were many causes, the instrument of implementation, indeed of legalization, was the Yalta Agreement. The effects of repatriation were likewise many and varied, but this brief overview seeks to explore a single effect of the whole: The forced repatriation of Croatians to Yugoslavia in and around the village of Bleiburg, Austria and the events that followed over the next two years.

3Next Spring will mark the fiftieth anniversary of the end of World War II. It is perhaps of interest to look back a decade at how the fortieth anniversary was marked in 1985 to observe how much things have changed in a decade and how some things never change. The Soviet Union noted the fortieth anniversary of World War II as the great victory over Fascism in the “Great Patriotic War” which “liberated” half of Europe into the Commu-nist fold. A decade later, the Soviet Union no longer exists and Communism is on its death bed. The Western Allies remembered those who fell in battle and who served their country and they will do so again next year. But NATO, the true successor to the wartime Western Alliance, will no longer have as its primary mission the containment of Commu-nism. West Germany remembered her dead a decade ago and the horror of Hitlerism never to be repeated while East Germany honored the Soviets for their liberation while claiming that Hitlerism still lived in the West. Next year a united Germany will grapple with how to mark this anniversary as a member of NATO and with rising nationalism and Fascism arising primarily from the former Communist east. Japan remembered her dead in 1985, especially those who died at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the unwilling ushers into the nuclear age. But Japan did so unbowed. In the past decade, the Japanese government has formally apologized to many of the victims, both people and states, of Japanese aggression. Finally, throughout the world ten years ago, Jews and Gentiles alike painfully noted the liberation of the concentration camps and vowed that such a Holocaust would never happen again. Next year we will again remember these victims but with the knowledge that “ethnic cleansing” has again taken place in the heart of Europe while the so-called “Great Powers” stood silent.

4Much of what shaped the post-War world is directly linked to a single word: Yalta. The word first entered the world’s common vocabulary on February 13, 1945, when it was reported that a historic meeting had taken place in the Crimea from the fourth through the eleventh of that month at a place called Yalta. At the time it was called the Crimea conference and it is perhaps best to refer to the conference itself by that name since today Yalta has come to mean much more than a place where Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin met with their foreign ministers and chiefs-of-staff. Yalta has come to mean the partitioning of Germany, the Nuernberg Trials and the division of Europe between democracy and totalitarianism. Yalta meant the partition of Poland despite the fact that it was supposed to be the partitioning of Poland that started the Second World War. Yalta sacrificed the proud nations of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia and the agreement ratified the Soviet annexation of Rumanian, Slovak and Finnish lands.

5By signing the Yalta Agreement, Roosevelt and Churchill became co-signatories of the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939. Yalta became synonymous with great power politics and colonialism: three kings dividing up the world without regard to the wishes of the peoples of every nation. The cavalier manner with which the future of nations was decided was best described by Winston Churchill in his book The Second World War: Triumph & Tragedy: “Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans…how would it do for you to have 90% predominance in Rumania, for us to have 90% in Greece, and go 50/50 in Yugo-slavia?” He then wrote the equation on a half sheet of paper and handed it to Stalin.

Churchill pushed the list to Stalin who made a large check-mark on it with a blue pencil. Churchill then said “Might it not be thought cynical if it seemed we had disposed of these issues, so fateful to millions of people, in such an offhand manner? Let us burn the paper.”

6The Atlantic Charter, for which hundreds of thousands of Allied soldiers, sailors and airmen had died was thus disposed of at Yalta. The words of the Atlantic Charter promis-ed that “All peoples have a right to choose their own forms of government; those forcibly deprived of the right should have it restored.” Such lofty words were not to apply to any of the captive nations of the USSR or eastern Europe. These millions of people could not have known, nor would they have believed, that their ancient nations and homelands were dispatched with the flick of a blue pencil.

In a half century it would seem that every aspect of this tragedy would have been explored in detail by historians, political scientists and politicians. Surely, after a half century, there could be no questions unanswered and no factual data unexplored. And indeed there has been some very good scholarly research into this earth changing event.

Some of the blame has been laid at the feet of Stalin, although only in passing. He perhaps deserves the least blame if only because he was open and honest in his motives and did most for his own political interests. We now know that Roosevelt was nearly on his death bed at Yalta, but history tends to forgive those who die in power, as it seldom does for those who die in exile or shame. Roosevelt remains a hero to much of America. Winston Churchill will forever be protected by history as the bulldog who saved Britain. Each of the three had his advisors and aids at his side. Howard MacMillan was hired by Britain to re-shape the Mediterranean in the imperial mold, but stayed on to run the shop. Alger Hiss, Roosevelt’s own in-house communist, became something of a folk hero to America’s liberal elite. And Brea, Stalin’s Chief of Secret Police has taken the ups and downs of historical revisionism with the political mood in Russia.

7History has been written and the blame has been put at any number of deserving feet. Yet through it all, one aspect of Yalta has been given little attention by scholarly and popular writers alike. The subject is the planned, pre-ordained murder of hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children in the months and years after World War II. The victims of Yalta died at the hands of Stalin and his surrogates, but only with the cooperation and active participation of the Western Allies: the United States and Great Britain.

Each nation has its own name for this holocaust. For Croatia the name is the Bleiburg Tragedy after the small Austrian village from which thousands began their long march back into a new Communist Yugoslavia. The American military code-named it Operation Keelhaul from the ancient punishment of keelhauling wayward sailors who were dragged under the keel of a moving ship at the end a rope. By whatever name, this was without question one of the most shameful episodes of the Second World War if only because it occurred after the War ended. The Bleiburg tragedy was murder which began when the legal killing called warfare ended.

In 1945 there was some international law on the subject of forced repatria-tion. In brief, the concept was not acceptable under any international guidelines. The Hague Conven-tions of 1899 and 1907 treat it only by exclusion and by making it clear that prisoners-of-war must be treated humanely. The Geneva Accords of 1929 also did not recognize the concept of forced repatriation. The 1949 Geneva Accords prohibit forced repatriations “during hostilities.” Still the wording is vague. Dozens of treaties between the USSR and neighboring states did explicitly prohibit the forced return of any individual against his or her will.

The “Yalta Agreement between the Soviet Union and the United States,” later Britain and France, “Concerning Liberated Prisoners of War and Civilians” was signed on February 11, 1945 by U.S. Major General John R. Dene and Soviet Lt. General Gryzlov. This agreement called upon the United States and the Soviet Union to take joint action regarding Soviet and American nationals in the war zone. There were, of course, few American nationals, civilian or military, in Eastern Europe in the final days of World War II. In part, the Agreement read:

“All Soviet citizens liberated by forces operating under United States command …will, without delay after their liberation, be separated from enemy prisoners of war and will be maintained separately from them in concentration camps until they have been handed over to the Soviet authorities…”1

The Agreement also provided for Soviet control of the camps and “…the right to appoint the internal administration and set-up the internal discipline and management in accor-dance with the military prosecute the laws of their country.”

Still, there was no reference to “forced” repatriation in the Agreement although it was implied. The entire agreement was designed to meet Soviet needs and the method of repatriation was left up to the Soviet Union. But the Yalta Agreement did not invent forced repatriation, it simply formalized existing policy. Documents from September 1944 on set a clear direction of action against “…any national of the United Nations who is believed to have committed offenses against his national law in support of the German war effort.” Since the act of surrender was a criminal act in the USSR, all prisoners-of-war were criminals subject to the death penalty. These words also applied to any person living on the territory of Yugoslavia who did not support the Partisans during the War. On September 16, 1944, U.S. Political Officer Alexander Kirk sent a cable to U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull which noted that an agreement had been reached between the Soviets and the British for repatriation of Soviet citizens held as prisoners-of-war “…irrespective of whether the individuals desire to return to Russia or not. Statements will not be taken from Soviet nationals in the future as to their willingness to return to their native country.” Kirk further noted that “MacMillan is apparently receiving instruc-tions to this effect from the (British) Foreign Office.”

Unable to believe this obvious violation of international law, U.S. Ambassador to Moscow Averell Harriman wired Hull on September 24, 1944 demanding an explanation how the British government reached its decision. Kirk then met with MacMillan who justified the action by noting that “Since these men will no longer be treated as prisoners, the Geneva Conventions will no longer apply.”

All such conversations were “top secret” at the time. Even the text of the Yalta Agree-ment on Repatriation was not released until March 1946. The fact that the agreements were reached only with the Soviets means little. They were equally enforced by each of Stalin’s proteges, including Josip Tito before the Tito-Stalin split.

The results of this policy of the West, giving Stalin all he demanded while asking virtually nothing in return, are of such magnitude that they defy comprehension. Nine hundred thousand to one million followers of Russian Liberation Army General Andrei Vlasov were among the first to be forcibly returned. The leadership was executed and the others were sent into the vast system of hard labor camps made famous by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn as the “Gulag Archipelago.” The next victims were over three thousand Cossack officers at Lienz. Then tens of thousand of officers and men from every nation in Europe who had served their country in wartime. Finally, millions of civilian refugees fleeing the promise of a new Workers’ Paradise under Stalin, Tito, Hoxha and a dozen others, were also victims of Yalta.

To Croatians, the tragedy began at the small village of Bleiburg in Southern Carenthia, Austria. Bleiburg is a model for all the forced repatriations in post-war Europe. These post-war massacres of Croatians are almost unknown outside the Croatian com-munity despite the fact that the Bleiburg-Maribor massacres have been documented in such works as Operation Slaughterhouse by John Prcela and Stanko Guldescu, In Tito’s Death Marches and Extermination Camps by Joseph Heÿimoviÿ, Operation Keelhaul by Julius Epstein, Bleiburg by Vinko Nikoliÿ, and perhaps best known, The Minister and the Massacres by Count Nikolai Tolstoy. That these massacres occurred is irrefutable. Only the number of deaths and the depth of American and British duplicity are in question.

The story of Bleiburg began in early 1945 as it became clear that Germany would lose the War. As the German Army retreated toward the Austrian border, the Red Army advanced, and the Partisans began their con-solidation of power, anarchy prevailed in what was Yugo-slavia. A dozen or more nationalist movements and ethnic militias attempted to salvage various parts of Yugoslavia. Most nationalists, Croatian, Slovenian and Serbian alike, were anti-Communist and all had visions of the Western Allies welcoming them into the coming battle against Communism. Croatians especially cherished the totally unsup-ported notion that Anglo-American intervention would save an independent Croatian state.

As in every other part of eastern Europe, armies, governments, and civilian populations began moving toward the Western lines. Some were pushed before the retreating Ger-mans, others followed in their wake. Many traveled in small bands, armed or unarmed, while others were well organized into mass movements of people and equipment. Along the trek north they fought the Partisans and ÿetniks. Many surrendered, others fought to the death.

The retreating Germans, usually without bothering to inform their erstwhile allies, took with them much of the material support needed by the Croatian armed forces. Despite conditions, several Croatian generals wanted to defend the city of Zagreb from the Partisan advance and fight to the finish if necessary. The Partisans made it clear that the city, swollen to twice its size with refugees, would be destroyed if they met resistance. A final meeting of the Croatian government was held on April 30, 1945 at which the decision was made to abandon Zagreb and retreat into Austria.

Still quite naive concerning Allied intentions, many Croatian officers hoped that the still sizable Croatian Army would be allowed to surrender to the British to fight again against the Russians. Since both Croatia and Britain were signatories to the Geneva Conventions, it was felt that at worst the Croatians would be treated as prisoners of war.

The exodus from Zagreb began on May 1st. Some 200,000 civilians were flanked by almost as many soldiers, sailors and airmen of the Croatian armed forces. The Arch-bishop-Metropolitan Aloysius Stepinac took charge of the govern-ment for the few hours between the departure of Croatian officials and the arrival of the Partisan Army. State Minister Vranÿiÿ was dispatched to Italy as a peace emissary to the Allies and several high-ranking English-speaking officers headed the main column toward Austria.

The retreat was well ordered and the protecting flank armies insured that all of the civilians arrived safely at the Austrian border by May 7. A number of military units remained behind to fight delaying actions as late as May 12. Still other units, known as Crusaders fled into the hills and fought sporadic guerilla actions until 1948.

The huge column finally came to rest in a small valley near the Austrian village of Bleiburg, where they arrived on May 14th and 15th. Believing in the sense of fair play and justice for which the British had made themselves known, the Croatians surrendered to the British with the promise that they would not be forced back into Yugoslavia.

The leaders had no way of knowing that their peace emissary, Dr. Vranÿiÿ, had traveled as far as Forli, Italy by plane and car under a white flag only to be stopped short of his goal. At Forli, Vranÿiÿ and Naval Captain Vrkljan, who spoke fluent English, were detained by one Captain Douglas of British Field Security who was more interested in their diplomatic grade Mercedes-Benz automobile than their mission to see Field Marshal Alexander in Caserta. He held the emissaries incommunicado until May 20 when he had them thrown into a prisoner of war camp and confiscated the automobile.

In the belief that their envoys had made some arrangement with the British, the multitude of humanity set up camp in the valley to await the outcome of negotiations. One of the first groups to arrive at British head-quarters was a contin-gent of 130 members of the Croatian government headed by President Nikola Mandiÿ. All were told that they would be transferred to Italy as soon as possible by British Military Police. All were then loaded into a train and returned to the Partisans. It was the intent of the British to turn over all Croatians, as well as Serbs and Slovenes, to the Communists from whom they had fled.

When the Croatian military leaders realized that they had led hundreds of thousands into a trap, some committed suicide on the spot. The British extradited at first hundreds, then thousands of Croatians. Some were shot at the border, while others joined the infamous “Death Marches” which took them deeper into the new People’s Republic for liquidation. They were forced back, some in trains, some on foot, to the waiting arms of Tito’s Partisans. On May 16, 1945, the killing began. It would not end for two years.

The survivors of the initial atrocities were organized into forced marches by the 7th Brigade of the 17th Partisan Division. The Croatians called them the “Death Marches.” Tens of thousands of men, women and children were marched, hands tied with wire, through the villages and towns of southern Austria and Slovenia. On their southward trek toward the camps, they were starved, beaten, raped and ridiculed. Those who did not march were shot and dumped into shallow graves or caves. Wounded and ill Croatian soldiers and civilians in hospitals and field camps were loaded onto wagons and sent toward the camps with the southbound sea of humanity. Many would not survive. Those who did live would spend as much as a decade in concentration camps, labor battalions and prisons. Finally, the government of Yugoslavia plowed over Croatian military cemeteries and attempted to erase all traces of the Bleiburg massacres. As late as 1974 graves were removed to block investigation of the tragedy. 2 The total number of people liquidated may never be known. Despite the scholarship and masses of documents proving the contrary, the Yugoslav government denied that the Bleiburg-Maribor massacres or any subsequent liquidation of anti-Communists occurred. As late as 1976 special teams were active in Slovenia and southern Austria cover-ing up evidence of the crimes. The American and British govern-ments, implicated in the forced repatriation that led to the slaughter, also sought to cover-up or at least ignore the crimes.

Unlike Lidece, or Hiroshima, or Dresden, the tragedy of Bleiburg was not a single event, but hundreds of events over a long period of time. And, unlike Hiroshima or Dresden, Bleiburg was not an act of war. It was an act of post-war retribution. The initial killings near the Austro-Yugoslav border were followed by the execution of members of the Croatian government. There were massacres at other sites. Some, like Kamnik involved a few thousand deaths. Others, like Maribor, saw over 40,000 die.

To debate whether the suffering of the Croatians at Bleiburg and beyond surpassed that of the Cossacks, Russians, Ukrainians or the millions of others of all nations during and after World War II, or to attempt to quantify whether the collective fate of the victims of Bleiburg was worse than that of the citizens of Hiroshima or Dresden, serves neither an academic or humanistic purpose. One half century after the fact, continuing to lay blame, access guilt or call for vengeance serves no purpose.

What is clearly needed is further study. Serious, unemotional, study by historians, political scientists, legal scholars, sociologists, psychologists, forensic criminologists and others. The study must be separated from political or ethnic considerations. The task at hand is to learn the true impact of Bleiburg on post-War Croatia, the psyche and self-image of the Croatian nation. The mere recognition that Bleiburg did occur, that ques-tions exist, and that in all things there are causes, actions, and effects, is a giant first step toward understanding the tragedy and healing the wounds still felt by so many.

6. – 15.V.1945 Massive numbers of Croatian soldiers and civilians withdraw from Croatia and march towards southern Austria to surrender to the Western Allies. They arrive in the small village of Bleiburg where the British hand them over to Tito’s Partisans. The infamous “Death Marches” result in the most horrible slaughters in the history of Croatia.Yu

Source: MYTH- “THERE WAS NO RETRIBUTION AGAINST THE CROATIANS AFTER WORLD WAR II”-
MYTH: “THERE WAS NO RETRIBUTION AGAINST THE CROATIANS AFTER WORLD WAR II”

Myth: Because Tito was a Croatian, no retribution was taken against Croatian officials, soldiers or civilians after World War II by the victorious Partisans.

Reality: Thousands of Croatians were slaughtered immediately after the War, tens of thousands more were sent to prisons, government officials were executed and those who escaped were tracked down and murdered in foreign lands well into the 1960s.

That there was no retribution against the Croatians after World War II is not so much a myth as an outright attempt to falsify history. As is the case with several other myths, the Serbian apologists Nora Beloff and David Martin gave new currency to this story in the world press during the Croatian war for independence.

Bleiburg

The post-war massacres of Croatians are almost unknown outside the Croatian community. To Croatians, the single word “Bleiburg” summarizes the pain endured by an entire nation. The Bleiburg-Maribor massacres have been documented in such works as Operation Slaughterhouse by John Prcela and Stanko Guldescu, In Tito’s Death Marches and Extermination Camps by Joseph Hecimovic, Operation Keelhaul by Julius Epstein, Bleiburg by Vinko Nikolic, and perhaps best known, The Minister and the Massacres by Count Nikolai Tolstoy. That these massacres occurred is irrefutable. Only the number of deaths and the depth of American and British duplicity are in question. The story of Bleiburg began in early 1945 as it became clear that Germany would lose the War. As the German Army retreated toward the Austrian border, the Red Army advanced and the Partisans began their consolidation of power, anarchy prevailed in what was Yugoslavia. A dozen or more nationalist movements and ethnic militias attempted to salvage various parts of Yugoslavia. Most nationalists, Croatian, Slovenian and Serbian alike, were anti-Communist and all had visions of the Western Allies welcoming them into the coming battle against Communism. Croatians especially cherished the totally unsupported notion that Anglo-American intervention would save an independent Croatian state. As in every other part of eastern Europe, armies, governments and civilian populations began moving toward the Western lines. Some were pushed before the retreating Germans, others followed in their wake. Many traveled in small bands, armed or unarmed, while others were well organized into mass movements of people and equipment. Along the trek north they fought the Partisans and each other. Many surrendered, others fought to the death.

Retreat from Zagreb

The retreating Germans, usually without bothering to inform their erstwhile allies, took with them much of the material support for the Croatian armed forces. Despite conditions, several Croatian generals wanted to defend the city of Zagreb from the Partisan advance and fight to the finish if necessary. The Partisans made it clear that the city, swollen to twice its size with refugees, would be destroyed if they met resistance. A final meeting of the Croatian government was held on April 30, 1945 at which the decision was made to abandon Zagreb and retreat into Austria.

Still quite naive concerning Allied intentions, many Croatian officers hoped that the still sizable Croatian Army would be allowed to surrender to the British to fight again against the Russians. Since both Croatia and Britain were signatories to the Geneva Conventions, it was felt that at worst the Croatians would be treated as prisoners of war.

The exodus from Zagreb began on May 1st. Some 200,000 civilians were flanked by 200,000 soldiers, sailors and airmen of the Croatian armed for~es. The Archbishop-Metropolitan Aloysius Stepinac took charge of the government for the few hours between the departure of Croatian officials and the arrival of the Partisan Liberation Army. State Minister Vrancic was dispatched to Italy as a peace emissary to the Allies and several high-ranking English speaking officers headed the main column toward Austria. The retreat was well ordered and the protecting flank armies insured that all of the civilians arrived safely at the Austrian border by May 7. A number of military units remained behind to fight delaying actions as late as May 12. Still other units, known as “Crusaders” fled into the hills and fought sporadic guerilla actions until 1948. The huge column, numbering perhaps as many as one-half million soldiers and civilians, including Slovenes, Serbs and even Cetnik units, finally came to rest in a small valley near the Austrian village of Bleiburg.

The leaders had no way of knowing that their peace emissary, Dr. Vrancic had traveled as far as Forli, Italy by plane and car under a white flag only to be stopped short of his goal. At Forli, Vrancic and Naval Captain Vrkljan, who spoke fluent English, were detained by one Captain Douglas of British Field Security who was more interested in their diplomatic grade Mercedes-Benz automobile than their mission to see Field Marshal Alexander in Caserta. He held the emissaries incommunicado until May 20 when he had them thrown into a POW camp and confiscated the automobile.

Deception and Betrayal

In the belief that their envoys had made some arrangement with the British, the multitude of humanity set up camp in the valley to await the outcome of negotiations. One of the first groups to arrive at British headquarters was a contingent of 130 members of the Croatian government headed by President Nikola Mandic. All were told that they would be transferred to Italy as soon as possible by British Military Police. All were then loaded into a train and returned to the Partisans for execution. It was the intent of the British to turn over all Croatians, as well as Serbs and Slovenes, to the Communists from whom they had fled.

When the Croatian military leaders realized that they had led hundreds of thousands into a trap, many committed suicide on the spot. The British extradited at first hundreds, then thousands of Croatians. Some were shot at the border, while others joined the infamous “Death Marches” which took them deeper into the new People’s Republic for liquidation. Realizing the importance of the clergy to the Croatian people, most church leaders were arrested. Although Archbishop Stepinac was sentenced to death, he was saved by a massive outcry of world public opinion and died under house arrest in 1960. Two bishops, three hundred priests, twenty-nine seminarians and four lay brothers were less fortunate and were executed. The number of Muslim religious leaders executed has never been determined, although the figure is thought to be in excess of six hundred. Churches and mosques were closed or destroyed throughout Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina. The new government dynamited the minarets around the mosque of Zagreb, turned the building into a museum glorifying the Partisan victory and renamed the square in which it stood “Victims of Fascism Square.” One of the first acts of the Croatian government in 1991 was to rename the plaza.Almost every government official from the President to local postmasters, every military officer above the rank of major and virtually every Ustasse officer, regardless of rank, was found guilty of “crimes against the people.” Many were executed. Enlisted members of the Ustase were often found guilty en masse and sent to concentration camps where many died. All top ranking members of the government were executed. Chief-of-state Ante Pavelic managed to flee only to be gunned down by a would-be assassin in 1957. He later died of complications.

Denial and Discovery

The total number of people liquidated may never be known, but figures of 100 to 180 thousand have been voiced by some, up to one-quarter of a million by others. Despite the scholarship and masses of documents proving the contrary, the Yugoslav government denied that the Bleiburg-Maribor massacres or any subsequent liquidation of anti-Communists occurred. As late as 1976 special teams were active in Slovenia and southern Austria covering up evidence of the crimes. The American and British governments, implicated in the forced repatriation that led to the slaughter also sought to cover-up or at least ignore the crimes.

Finally, in July of 1990 with the departure of the Communist regime, the truth began to come to light. In underground caverns in Slovenia and northern Croatia, researchers using spelunker’s equipment descended into the mass graves long before sealed by the authorities. They found layer upon layer of human bones, crutches, rope and wire. Many of the skulls had a single bullet hole in the back. Estimates ranged from 5,000 victims in one cave to as many as 40,000 in another. When news was made public, people from throughout Croatia and Slovenia reported other mass grave sites that had been known to them for years. For obvious reasons none had ever spoken publicly of them before.

In 1990 the Croatian Parliament formed a commission which included foreign experts to determine, for the first time, the full extent of the post-war massacres. Determining how many perished will be a difficult undertaking that will require years of grizzly exploration and detailed research. Whatever the final result, it will never again be said that Croatia did not suffer in post-war Yugoslavia.

Genocide – A Short Survey of Croatia

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bleiburg_massacre
Bleiburg massacre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediach

The Bleiburg massacre occurred near to the end of World War II, during May 1945. It is named after the village of Bleiburg on the Austrian-Slovenian border, near where the massacre began. It involved mass murder of Croatian soldiers and civilians who were fleeing from the defeated Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of the Nazi regime in Germany. The atrocities were a reprisal against the real or alleged members or collaborators of the fascist regime, by the communist Yugoslav partisan army, presumably with the full knowledge of their supreme commander Josip Broz Tito, who was himself half-Croatian.

Although a still undefined number of Croatian soldiers died during a series of battles and skirmishes, it is generally accepted that the vast portion of violent deaths were the result of executions that lasted at least two weeks after the cessation of hostilities. The victims were Croatian soldiers and civilians, executed without trial as an act of vengeance for the crimes committed by the Ustaše regime in Croatian-controlled territories during World War II — frequently in overtly gruesome manner (mass rape and subsequent killing by stoning of women; beheading of disarmed Croatian soldiers). Murder continued in nearby Slovenia, and it is hard to estimate the number of victims in Bleiburg field, compared to those later found in the trenches in the Maribor area and other numerous pits in Slovenia. Many captives were sent on a death march further into Yugoslav territory.

Croatian political émigrés, as well as other sources related to the Cossacks, had published numerous testimonies on the atrocities and British involvement in the affair (interestingly enough, British archives on the Operation Keelhaul tragedy are still sealed), but their publications have received little attention, supposedly since communist Yugoslavia was the West’s protégé and the buffer zone to the Soviets in the post-war period.
Number of victims

The number of those who met their death in the Bleiburg massacre is almost impossible to ascertain. Generally, there are three schools that have tried to do this:

1. The school based mainly on historiographic and demographic investigations of scientists:

The Croatian statistician Vladimir Žerjavic has estimated based on demographic records that ca. 55,000 people were killed in the Bleiburg area and in Slovenia.
British journalist Misha Glenny and other investigators or publicists have come up with the figure of 50,000 executed disarmed soldiers and 30,000 civilians.
The Croatian-American historian Jozo Tomaševic (from Stanford University) collected fairly exact records stating that 116,000 Croatian combatants (Ustaše and Domobrani) arrived at Bleiburg (in a group of around 200,000 people in total), and were subsequently barred entry. He stated this number with certainty, and then proceeded to estimate that around one half of them were killed.

Which of these figures is closest to the reality is still hard to decide.

2. Another school operates with big numbers, and their contention is that over 250,000 Croats had been executed in Bleiburg, Slovenia and northern Croatia. This theory has gained some publicity in recent years, when Slovene authorities have estimated, in 1999 and 2000, that mass excavations in wider Maribor area have found circa 180,000 human corpses, mostly Croats (judging from the remnants of military insignia). As reported elsewhere:

In 1999 the resources from the Republic of Slovenia reported as many as 110 mass graves of Croats discovered in this state, victims of the “Way of the Cross” in 1945 immediately after the end of World War II. Among them there were not only soldiers, but also a large number of civilians. The Slovenian public was shocked by the size and number of these graves.

In 2001 Slovenian sources reported as many as 296 mass graves on their territory, and an estimate of about 190,000 people killed immediately after the end of World War II (May 1945 and later), mostly Croats. Just in the region of Tezno woods Slovenian sources estimate about 60-80,000 killed. Many children’s bones have been found among the victims’ remains.

3. The third school operated with small numbers. Petar S. Brajovic, a Yugoslav general who participated in the battles around Bleiburg and is, along with other senior Yugoslav officers like Albert Nad and Dušan Basta, frequently accused as having organized the Bleiburg massacre, claims in his book “Konacno oslobodenje” (“Final liberation”) published in 1983, that Ustaše had no big victims in Bleiburg and that artillery was not used. In the local cemetery there were only 16 their soldiers buried. In the same book is written that Third Army of Jugoslav Army captured 30000 soldiers (6000 of them were Chetniks) and 20000 refugees.

However, the investigation was stalled, so no definite conclusion can be drawn.Bleiburg massacre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

JOŠ NAS IMA, JOŠ HRVATA..
Bleiburg 1945. – u sjecanje

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Križni Put
Pjeva Duka Caic
Nikada mi nisi rekla majko,
Sto nam je odnio taj rat,
Za rod drugih ja da saznam,
Kako mi je skoncao brat.
Nikada mi nisi rekla majko,
Sto je bio krizni put,
Bojala si se majko moja,
Cuvala si obiteljski kut.
15
Upalit cu nocas svijecu,
Nek pukne stijena, nek presuse vrela.
Upalit cu nocas svijecu,
Jer brata mi nema, jer brata mi nema,
I to brata najstarijeg,
Tebi majko najmilijeg.

14
Nikada mi nisi rekla majko,
Sto je bio krizni put,
Bojala si se majko moja,
Cuvala si obiteljski kut.

11
Kolone smrti, samrtno proljece.
Napusteni dom…
Od Save do Alpa krvav trag,
jauk, jecaj, slom.
Po Europi zvona zvone:
nastao je mir.10
U Hrvatskoj stekcu puske –
krvavi je pir.

Bosih nogu sum
u pogrebnom hodu,
uz plac cijele nacije
ubise slobodu.

Stjepan Hrastovec

8Ne znam da li si pao kao borac
Izpod zastave hrvatske svete,
Ili su Te ubili u Koloni smrti
Ili si sa grudi majke odtrgnut kao diete.

Taj spomenik neka bude naše jedinstvo,
Ljubav medu nama i sloga hrvatska.
To ce biti naše remek – djelo,
Iz kojeg ce niknut N. D. Hrvatska!

I zato stari i novi borci,
Kunu se Tebi, neznani hrvatski sine,
Da ce se do zadnje kapi krvi
Borit za slobodu Domovine!13

Cuj: vec kroz hrvatske gore
Njihove pjesme cuje se jeka.
Svice naša Zora! Pucaju okovi!
Ubojice Tvoje i hrvatskog puka
Zaslužna kazna ceka.

Tek onda ce moc naraštaji,
Hrvatska uzdanica, naš ponos i dika,
Proci u mimohod izpred Tvoga lika!
9
Preuzeto s www.crnalegija.com

11

Atrocities of the former YUGOSLAVIA – JAZOVKA

Atrocities of the former YUGOSLAVIA – JAZOVKA

JAZOVKA, a naturally formed pit above the village of Sošice has become a tragic ossuary some 40 metres deep. In 1990 many human bones, skulls shot through, army boots and belts were discovered at the bottom of the pit. The victims of the Second World War and the post-war period ended their lives here in the most ruthless way, when, after the establishement of the communist regime, the prisoners of war, soldiers and civilians, were thrown into the pit. The memorial cricifix is placed close to the pit and a holy mass is celebrated to commemorate the victims every year on Sunday in the middle of May.
In this set of video clips you will see how it was found with witness statements.

1Who Amnestied the Partisan Crimes?:
On Forgotten Partisan Barbarism and Croatian Victims
Today in the most elite quarter of Zagreb resides the chief orchestrator of the massacre in the Macelj woods
Stjepan Hrsak where some 13.000 people were killed (of 134 mass graves identified in the area out of 22 the remains of
1,163 victims have been exhumed). In the weekly “Nedjeljna Dalmacija” of July 15th 1990 Simo Dubajic admitted
the murder of 36,000 people in eight days in Kocevski Rog. How is it that in this and other cases our judiciary
and “Human Rights” advocates have not reacted to this day? President Mesic twice privately lunched with
Marko Belinic against whom the Croatian Domobran (regular army during the period 1941-45) Society filed
criminal charges for, amongst other documented crimes, the killing of 236 prisoners who were flung into the
Jazovka pit on Jan. 1st 1943. What kind of democracy is it where the President lunches with an individual2
accused of war crimes, and not only is there not a parliamentary inquiry but there is no mention of the fact
either in the media or from the political opposition?
I have investigated communist crimes for some 30 years and agree with many foreign experts (Rummel,
Scott, Heinsohn, etc.) that the communist revolution in former Yugoslavia killed some one million people.
Zherjavices and other “demographic studies” are so worthless that they can be debunked even on the basis of
articles which have appeared in the daily press (exhumations near Maribor and Slatinski Drenovac which
yielded the remains of 1.633 victims, near Klinca Selo where 1.500 prisoners were killed in five locations, seven
areas under mount Sljeme near Zagreb where 976 victims are buried are just a few of several hundred examples
which have appeared in the printed press over the last several years). Today only a moral or intellectual idiot can
negate this.
The establishment of communist Yugoslavia cost the Croatian people from 1941 to 1951 some
45O.OOO murdered civilians and prisoners of war, including 40.000 wounded and over 50.000 killed in battle.
3Proportional this is the equivalent of over TWENTY MILLION DEAD in the USA. And we allow these
victims of the largest genocide in the history of southeastern Europe to be criminalized by their murderers and
intellectual criminals who work in the vast majority of media in Croatia. The fact that the most beautiful square
in Zagreb carries the name of the individual ranked as the fifth worst criminal of the 20th century (Josip Broz
Tito) says all about the level of civilization and nation, and above all moral consciousness here. A society
which allows such a level of historical falsification cannot be healthy.
In the daily “Politika” of February 1st 1951 chief of secret police Aleksandar Rankovic states: “Through
our jails there passed from 1941 to 1951 3.777.776 persons and we liquidated 568.000 enemies of the
people”. The last number, of course, does not include some 100.000 inhabitants of the Independent State of
Croatia killed from 1941 to the end of April 1945: After the fall of Travnik 2.200 in four days, 700 in Zemun
the first night, 646 in Bihac from Nov. 3rd 1942 to Jan. 25th 1943, 386 in Srijemski Karlovci, 90.000 German
prisoners of war, tens of thousands of victims who were not identified and who were thrown into pits, lakes,
etc. During May, June and July 1945, so many corpses were carried by the Sava, Drava and other waterways
that the Partisan press was forced to write about them.
4The daily “Borba” of May 14th 1945 writes: “…Today and yesterday corpses flowed down the Sava
river; all days eighty two who appear to have been killed recently were dragged out… They were dressed in the
regional costumes of the Srijem and Zagorje region…”. The area of Srijem since early mid-April was firmly in
Partisan hands. Many who are still (!) portrayed as victims of the Ustasha soldiers in Jasenovac were murdered
by the Partisans who filmed them and attributed them to the Ustasha fighters. Another point on which the
“antifascists” remain mum is how many Serbs who did not have “an ideologically acceptable profile” they
killed, 305 in the districts od Dreznica, Skare and Medak alone. From the Hague Tribunal and other responsible
addresses like the UN Security Council through diplomatic channels we should continually ask only one
question: Is international law applicable to all nations and parties?
In Chechenya the Russian forces since 1994 out of 880.000 indigenous inhabitants have so far killed
60.000 civilians, injured some 200.000 and expelled 400.000. Other than numerous documented massacres the
use of disproportional force is already evident, contrary to the Geneva and Hague Conventions. Are the
investigators under the way and when will indictments be raised against those who are responsible for the crimes?6
Considering the way our diplomacy has functioned up to date, it would be better if we had none. While
in the concentration camp in 1992 a dear friend of mine, half-dead from beatings (amongst other injuries his
brain-fluid sack burst and drained from his nose) told me: “I regret nothing, it was for Croatia “. And today those who
were and remain hardcore opponents of Croatian independence have the main say. In any other transitional
country they would be in jail and not on television.
Jewish Crimes
A Zionist charlatan Efraim Zuroff came here to dispense moral lectures from country whose air force in
just two months in Lebanon killed more innocent civilians than Jews who were killed or died from all causes
during the Independent State of Croatia. Israel has expelled 1.1 million Palestinians and Arabs, of 489
Palestinian villages 368 were razed to the ground and rocks thrown into wells so that the inhabitants do not return.
In the villages of Deir Jasin and Dweima in 1948 and in Gaza in 1956 alone the Israeli army massacred at least
1300 civilians. Does it sit well with us to continually be intellectual, ideological and political slaves of foreign
know-nothings and domestic Yugo-marxist clowns?
This is a translation of an article by Davor Glasnovich which appeared in the daily “Slobodna
Dalmacija”, Oct. 15, 2000

http://www.culturenet.hr/v1/english/panorama.asp?id=80

7Jazovka, a natural hole near the village of Sošice; an ossuary hole, in which an estimated 20,000 or more bodies of killed Croatian soldiers were thrown by the partisans in 1943; during 1945 the communist government killed and buried there prisoners of war and civilians. Since Jazovka was made public in 1990, every year, on the Sunday falling closest to the 15th of May, a memorial mass is served for the fallen. A modest memorial plate with inscription “Father, forgive them; for they knew what they had done”.
.hr/Hrvatsko_slovo/2005/535/jeka.htm://
Feral Tribune, Split, Croatia, December 29 1997
Myth About Jazovka

Further developing the magic formula, its moderate followers told us that Ustashe were not golden boys, but neither were the Partisans. That had to be proven with material evidence. Immediately after HDZ won power, Jazovka ravine was discovered near Zagreb, with a lot of media fanfare; it was probably supposed to become a counterpart of Jasenovac. The alleged number of the victims thrown into Jazovka (captured members of the NDH military units and civilians who were after the war killed by the Partisans) was immediately estimated at 20,000 and by today it has reached 60,000. However, the Commission which at the time was established by the Parliament with the mission to carefully research the victims of Jazovka and informing the public about them, never announced its results. Maybe because, according to the information coming from the then prime minister Josip Manolic, in Jazovka, instead of tens of thousands, only the remains of 245 persons were found and it was assumed that the remains were of the Ustashe who had died or been shot in the battle for Krasic, in the last days of 1942.

The myth about tens of thousands of victims in Jazovka has nevertheless survived, as at the time the myth about hundreds of thousands of victims in Jasenovac. The campaign around the victims from Jazovka has given impetus to the founding of the Parliamentary commission for the investigation of the war victims and victims in the post-war period; the Commission, while led by Vice Vukojevic, tried very hard to prove Vukojevic’s conviction that the Partisans were a gang of murderers; for obvious reasons, Tudman didn’t like that and, consequently, the involvement of Vukojevic in that project was short lived.

Nevertheless, Tudman never denied that he had borrowed from Vukojevic the idea about the conversion of the Jasenovac memorial park into the “park commemorating all Croatian war victims”, as he stated in his State of the Croatian State and Nation Address in 1995. The plan to convert the memorial to the victims of the largest Ustashe death-camp, which has been and still is a symbol of the genocidal and racist nature of the Ustashe state, into a “memorial to all Croatian war victims” provoked extremely strong reactions abroad, especially in the USA and Tudman had to pull back. The future will tell whether he has definitely given up on this idea or whether this was just a tactical withdrawal.

JAZOVKA – A place where not much is said about. Here is evidence of TITO’s crimes.1

THE COLLABORATION OF D.MIHAILOVIC’S CHETNIKS WITH THE ENEMY FORCES OF OCCUPATION

THE COLLABORATION OF D.MIHAILOVIC’S CHETNIKS WITH THE ENEMY FORCES OF OCCUPATION

(1941-1944)

Title in Serbo-Croatian: TAJNA I JAVNA SARADNJA CETNIKA I OKUPATORA
1941-1944.

Selected and annotated by

Professor Dr. Jovan MARJANOVIC

Faculty of Humanities
Belgrade University
Serbia

With the collaboration of Mihailo STANISIC M. A.

Published by: Arhivski pregled, Beograd,
Karnedžijeva 2

Printed by: Servis Saveza udruženja pravnika Jugoslavije,
Beograd, Proleterskih brigada 74.

Page

60. German Pass for Chetnik Officer_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 130
61. Letter from Major S. Vranješevic to D. Mihailovic
on Indispensability of Collaboration_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 131
62. Allied Intelligence Bulletin on Chetnik Collaboration
with the Enemy_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 133
63. German-Chetnik Talks in Eastern Serbia_ _ _ _ _ 135
64. Report of General Felber Military Governor of Serbia
on His Talks with Chetnik Commander Neško Nedic_ _ 137
65. D. Mihailovic Secures Food for the Reich_ _ _ _ _ _ 139
66. US Intelligence Report on Collaboration of Deligrad
Chetnik Corps woth the Enemy_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 141
67. Chetnik-German Talks in Topola_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 142
68. Chetnik Usefulness according to Evaluation of
German Command Southeast_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 145
69. German-Chetnik Collaboration in East Serbia_ _ _ 148
70. Germans Supply Bacovic and Lukacevic_ _ _ _ _ 149
71. Allied Report on Chetnik Collaboration_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 150
72. Royal Chetnik Guard Requests Germans for
Ammunition_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 153

judenfreistampsSerbian postage stamps of 1941.
Belgrade was the first city in
Europe to be declared Judenfrei;
Free of the jews. The Serbian insignia,
still used today, appears in the
upper corner of each stamp.

“The Serbian chetniks of Draza Mihailovic were represented as fighters against the occupier, while in fact they were the allies of the Nazi fascists in Yugoslavia….The documents in this collection indicate clearly and unequivocally that the Chetniks collaborated with the occupiers, both in the military and political sphere, as well as in the domain of economic activity, intelligence and propaganda… (source: the Serbian scholars, Dr. Jovan Marjanovic & Mihail Stanisic, The collaboration of Draza Mihailovic’s Chetniks with the enemy forces of occupation, 1976.)

FOREWORD
After spending several years studying and doing research on archive materials pertaining to the Chetnik movement of Draža Milhailovic I deemed it expedient to place a part of these documents and persons similarly engaged in the study of history and related subjects. Publication was indispensable for several reasons: For a long time General Draža Milhailovic remained the greatest mystification within the anti-Hitlerite condition. The Chetniks of D. Milhailovic were represented as fighters against the occupiers, while in actual fact they were allies of the Nazi-fascists in Yugoslavia where a nationwide people’s armed rising under Tito’s leadership had began as early as in July 1941; abundant archive materials of foreign provenience, primarily German, British, American and Italian, hitherto unknown to the public, have become accessible during the past three decades. These documents have made it possible to remove the veil of mystification that enshrouded the genuine role of D. Milhailovic’s Chetniks for so long. A large number of western historians and publicists are still writing very maliciously and untruthfully about the Chetniks of D. Milhailovic, concealing the very existence of the relevant archive materials which are available precisely and exclusively in western archives. At the same time certain emigrant Chetnik leaders, such as Ž. Topalovic, D. Jevdjevic, M. Žujovic, M. Djuic, Zv. Vuckovic and others have published memories and other works in the allied countries and in which they seek to conceal or justify Chetnik collaboration with the enemy invaders.
nazichetniks
This thematic collaboration of documents is a result of research done in Belgrade, Washington. London, Bonn, Koblenz and Freiburg( am Breisgau). The superabundance of materials on Chetnik collaboration with the enemy actually constituted the greatest difficulty, in view of the fact that the publication of these materials alone would require several thick volumes. I therefore strove to select a very limited number of characteristic documents for this collection. Owing to considerations of space it was necessary to publish some documents in abridged form (i.e. as excerpts). One of the main criteria was to select hitherto unpublished documents, so that the vast majority of materials in this collection are appearing for the first time in print. Only a few exceptions have been made in the interest of overall thematic and chronological unity.
chetniks03A group of Chetniks pose with German soldiers in an unidentified village in Serbia.

The collection covers documents from the war years 1941-1944. The documents from 1945 have not been included here, because by that time the Chetnik units of D. Mihailovic had become wholly incorporated in the German front in Yugoslavia. At that juncture the Chetniks were equipped and armed completely by the Germans and were fighting under German command.
The editor of this collection took care to include documents which refer to all regions in which D. Mihailovic Chetniks have been active. This indicates clearly enough that Chetnik collaboration was not limited to certain areas only, or was due to “arbitrary and undisciplined” action by the individual Chetnik commanders. It was a well pondered deliberate policy of the supreme Chetnik leadership including Draža Mihailovic himself. This policy of collaboration with the enemy was wholeheartedly endorsed and pursued by the other Chetnik leaders in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Lika, Slovenia and the Kosovo (as is known, the Chetnik movement was virtually non-existent in the larger part of Croatia in Macedonia and Vojvodina.)
drazanaziPhoto:Arhiv Srbije,Beograd,Yugoslavia.
Crimes of Chetnik-fascist army during WWII
An Italian officer in company with Mihailovic’s Chetniks
Photo:Arhiv Srbije,Beograd,Yugoslavia.

The documents in this collection indicate clearly and unequivocally that the Chetniks collaborated with the occupiers, both in the military and political sphere, as well as in the domain of economic activity, intelligence and propaganda. Evidence of Chetnik collaboration in this collection is provided by German, Italian, British, American and Chetnik documents. Documents of Partisan origin, of which there are many, have not been included in this selection, lest any objections be made to the effect that the selection of documents indicates a certain bias.

The texts of the documents are accompanied only by indispensable explanations concerning the individual persons and events mentioned. Moreover, the contents of the documents render all comment superfluous.

The documents have been translated into English by Angela Vujovic.
Archive call numbers are cited for every document, except for the German and Italian ones which are published according to the microfilm edition of the National Archives in Washington (NAW).

This collection of documents has concurrently been published in Serbo-Croatian under the title: Tajna I javna saradnja Cetnika I okupatora (1941-1944) (Secret and Public Collaboration of Chetniks and Occupiers), Belgrade 1976.

I. VII 1976.

Professor Dr. Jovan MARJANOVIC
Faculty of Humanities
Belgrade University
Serbia

______________________________

http://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/%D0%88%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD_%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%98%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%9B

Jovan Marjanovic

dr Jovan Marjanovic-Joca, Istoricar (1920. – 1980.)

Biografija

Najbolji poznavalac partizanskog i cetnickog pokreta.

Roden je 1. aprila 1920. godine u Sanskom Mostu (Bosna i Hercegovina). Pre rata završioo Bogosloviju u Sarajevu i 1940. godine upisao se na teološki fakultet.

Godine 1941. do 1945 u Narodnooslobodilackoj vojsci nalazio se na dužnosti politickog komesara cete, bataljona i brigade. Po oslobodenju stalno je bio na partijsko-politickim dužnostima. Bio je clan Okružnog komiteta u Banja Luci (1945-1947), a zatim završio Višu partisku školu “Ðuro Ðakovic” u Beogradu. Radio je jedno vreme i u partiskoj školi CK SK BIH u kojoj je bio i upravnik do 1954

Od tada živi u Beogradu, gde je diplomirao istoriju na Filozofskom Fakultetu, a doktorirao 1961. na istom, na temu “Narodnooslobodilacki pokret u Srbiji 1941-1945”.

Od 1963. stalni profesor Istorije XX. veka na Filozofskom Fakultetu, a od 1979. osnivac katedre za “Istoriju Jugoslavije 1918-1978”, gde je radio kao predavac.

Zajedno sa dr Vasom Cubrilovicem bio je saradnik na Balkanološkom institutu.

Naprasno je umro 1980 . godine u Beogradu.

Radio je i kao uredivac i priredivac leksikona, enciklopedija i školskih udžbenika. Objavio je veliki broj knjiga i radova na temu Narodnooslobodilackog pokreta u Jugoslaviji 1941-1945.

Najznacajmije su:

  • Narodnooslobodilacki pokret u Srbiji 1941, Beograd, 1961.
  • Prilozi za istoriju sukoba NOP i Cetnika-Zbornik radova za Istoriju XX veka, Beograd, 1962.
  • Ustanak i NOB u Srbiji 1941-1945, Beograd, 1963.
  • Oslobodilacki rat i narodna revolucija, Beograd, 1964.

Politicke stranke i moderne države, Beograd, 1970.

  • Drugi svetski rat, Beograd, 1973.
  • Tajna i javna saradnja Cetnika sa okupatorom-Arhivska grada, Beograd, 1978.
  • Draža Mihailovic izmedu Britanaca i Nemaca, Beograd, 1979.

Odlikovan je:

  • Ordenom bratstva i jedinstva II reda
  • Ordenom zasluge za narod
  • Ordenom partizanske zvezde III reda
  • Ordenom za hrabrost
Reference:

Marjanovic, Jovan, Professor Dr. The Collaboration Of D.Mihailovic’s Chetniks With The Enemy
Forces Of Occupation.
Beograd: Arhivski pregled, 1976.

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